Couplings use couplings when the actuator is required to be connected to the pump rotary system. The basic function of coupling is to transfer the rotational motion and torque from one part to another. Couplings may also have secondary functions such as compensating and correcting uneven inter-shafts, inhibiting axial movement of the shafts, and helping to inhibit vibrations, heat, and electrical induction currents from one shaft to another.

Non-flexible couplings
Flexible couplings are used to connect two devices that need their shafts to be kept exactly centered. Flexible coupling cannot correct the alignment of the two shafts, so precise axial alignment of the two shafts is essential when using this type of coupling.

Types of non-flexible couplings

There are mainly two types of non-flexible couplings. One type consists of two rigid flanges mounted on one of the shafts (figure below).

These flanges have a number of pins to connect the two halves of the coupling. If the couplings are properly designed and installed, the torque is fully transmitted from one end to the other. These types of couplings are useful in cases where there is torque vibration in propulsion systems. The second type of non-flexible couplings is called non-flexible couplings that are horizontally separated from the middle. The two halves are fastened together by screws arranged during the coupling (Figure below).

Applications of flexible couplings:

The major use of flexible couplings is in vertical thrust systems where the primary actuator of the pump (which is generally an electric motor) is located above the pump. In some cases, both devices can share the same axial bearing that is usually on the pump side.

The following should be noted when using these couplings:

Accurate axial alignment of the bearings of both devices is necessary as these couplings and their precision in structure are not flexible enough to measure the two axes being not axial.
Careful construction and standardization of these couplings is essential. The surfaces of these couplings located between the actuator shaft and the gear shaft must have a high degree of concentricity in order to avoid the crankshaft movement from one device to another.


Flexible couplings

Flexible couplings perform the primary task of coupling, which is to transfer the rotational torque between the primary actuator and the rotating machine, and also have a very important secondary function: they also eliminate the shaft impurity. .(figure below)



There are many types of flexible couplings in design, but they can be divided into two general categories:

Mechanical flexibility
Flexible in sex
Flexible mechanical couplings

Flexible mechanical couplings compensate for the unevenness between two interconnected shafts using the intervals provided in the design of these couplings. The most common types of flexible mechanical couplings are gear or gear couplings.

This coupling usually consists of four basic components. When two shafts are coupled by this type of coupling, each half of the coupling, comprising a hub and its coupling clamp, is connected to each shaft by means of a spindle and the clutches are bolted together. .

Because the hubs have outer teeth, they clash with the inner teeth and are one wheel to the other. This connection deliberately has a shaft and this shaft corrects the unevenness between the two shafts. In this type of coupling, sliding motion occurs and therefore a lubricant tank (oil or grease) is essential to prevent wear and tear. If our conditions are such that we cannot interrupt the process of lubrication, we should use permanent and lubricating couplings. The second type of flexible mechanical couplings, which are widely used in industry due to inexpensive steering systems, are known as flexible chain-roller couplings (figure below).

The coupling is made up of two solar wheels, each mounted on a shaft and connected by a rolling chain. The spacing between the wheels and the chains provides some mechanical flexibility to overcome the unevenness. These couplings are mainly used in low speed machines.

Gender flexible couplings

These couplings rely on the flexibility of their material to correct shaft irregularities. Their flexible material may be of any suitable material such as metal, polymer or plastic. This material must be sufficiently resistant to failure in order to obtain an acceptable coupling life.

Such couplings must be made of materials that are under load and unstable conditions, to ensure that they can withstand the extended pressure within the coupling. Some materials, such as steel, have low fracture range. Some materials, such as polymers, do not have a clear fracture range. In these cases, as the coupling bends, the heat inside the coupling may increase, causing the coupling to fail.

One of the types of flexible couplings is the disc - metal coupling  (Figure below).

The coupling consists of two thin metal discs that are screwed into the hub of each shaft. Each of these discs is made up of several thin layers and each layer has its own flexibility, resulting in the flexibility of the shaft correction due to their flexibility.

These couplings do not require lubrication. It should be noted that the alignment of the coupling must be maintained to an acceptable level and not exceed the coupling endurance threshold. Another example of sex-made flexible couplings made entirely of metal is the flexible diaphragm coupling (Figure below).

In terms of performance, this coupling is very similar to the disk couplings because it allows for flexible correction of the plate in these couplings. This coupling is very suitable for high speed applications.

The flexible couplings that use polymer materials are numerous and have different designs. According to the definition of polymer is a material that has high flexibility and reversibility and returns to its original shape after physical deformation. An example of polymer couplings is the bushy-bushing coupling shown in the figure below.

The coupling consists of two flanged hubs, each of which is mounted on one of the shafts. The flange of each hub has pins that are pivoted axially to the opposite shaft. The other flange is fitted with rubber bushings, which also have a metal cover in the middle. The pins go through these holes and pass through the torque force, because the bushes are made of flexible material that can withstand the angularity and the crankshaft of the two shafts to some extent.

The second type of polymer couplings utilizes a cylindrical intermediate that attaches to each of the shaft hubs and transmits the torque force by tangential to the cylindrical intermediate (figure below).

The flexible part may be connected to the hub in different ways, such as the bolt hub or connected to the hub by similar spines and joints. In this type of uneven coupling between the shafts is resolved by the flexural property of the polymeric cylinder.

A third type of couplings is available, which utilizes a polymer fragment that is compressed by the inserted load to transfer the load from one shaft to another (figure below).

This polymer piece loosely rests in a cavity formed by rigid parts mounted on the shaft. In this type, the polymer piece also changes its position to compensate for the shaft unnecessary. This coupling is used to reduce or reduce torsional oscillations.

Another type of polymer couplings that are most commonly used in low-power actuators is couplings, which consist of a combination of jaws and rubber intermediates (figure below).

The heart of this coupling is its multi-base bracket, whose number can vary from three to several. These bases are oriented in the center-to-center direction. The two hubs mounted on each of the shafts each have a jaw assembly that matches the number of polymeric intermediate brackets; It also transmits torque well.


Another type of flexible couplings

Spring-type network coupling

It is a commercial type of flexible couplings that combines the features and benefits of both types of flexible couplings (mechanical and flexible). (figure below)

Its structure is such that each hub mounts to one of the shafts. Each hub has a protruding section with fitted indentation fittings located between the slots in a coil of steel. This spring section can slide into the slot to accommodate two uneven shafts, and it can bend like a flat spring and transfer torque from one actuator to another. Unlike most flexible sex couplings, this coupling requires periodic lubrication to prevent wear and tear of the spring section.

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